As abeer style, saison began as apale alebrewed in the cooler, less active months in farmhouses inWallonia, the French-speaking region ofBelgium, and stored for drinking in the summer months.These farmhouse beers would have been of a lower ABV than modern saisons—around 3 to 3.5% ABV on average, rising in the early 20th century to between 4.5 and 6.5% ABV.In the Middle Ages, the low-gravity beer was served as a clean source of hydration for workers who consumed up to five liters per day.Brewing outside the summer months was common for all brewers before the invention of refrigeration, due to the likelihood of the beer spoiling while fermenting in the summer, during the height of airborne bacteria activity. Farmers possibly also brewed during the cooler months to provide work for their permanent staff during the quieter period.After brewing, the beer was stored until the summer when the main consumers would be seasonal workers ("saisonniers").
Historically, saisons did not share enough identifiable characteristics to pin them down as a specific style, but rather were a group of refreshing summer ales made by farmers. Each farm brewer would make his own distinctive version.[Although most commercial examples now range from 5 to 8% ABV, originally saisons were meant to be refreshing and it is thought they had alcohol levels ranging from 3 to 3.5%.
Modern saisons are generally highly carbonated, fruity and spicy—sometimes from the addition of spices.